Friday, January 25, 2008

Primum Pensum

In this story of Daphne and Apollo, Ovid juxtaposes two different themes: the hunt, and sexual passion. Explore these two themes in the story. Where do they run concurrently? Where do they diverge? Where do they pertain to Apollo in one way, to Daphne in another? Do they ever change roles? Finally, have you see anything like these double themes in the works of Catullus? Remember to document your work with quotations from the Latin, and then translate them before you analyze them.

19 comments:

Jay2 said...

In Ovid’s story of Daphne and Apollo from the Metamorphoses, there are several occurrences of the hunt being compared to Apollo’s pursuit.

One major one occurs as an extended simile in lines 533 - 539: Ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo vidit, et hic praedam pedibus petit…sic deus et virgo, est hic spe celer, illa timore / As when a Gallic dog sees a hare in an empty field…so are the god and the maiden; he is quick with hope, she with fear.

Another fantastic example of the metaphor is lines 505 – 506: “(ut me fugis) sic agna lupum, sic cerva leonem, sic aquilam penna fugiunt trepidante columbae / (As you flee from me) so a lamb flees a wolf, so a doe flees a lion, so doves with trembling feather flee an eagle.”

In both of these examples (which on a unrelated note remind me A LOT of Hungry Like the Wolf by Duran Duran), Daphne is symbolized as a sweet animal (like a hare, doe, dove, etc.) and Apollo is shown as the ruthless beastly pursuer, hoping only for prey. However, only two lines later, in 508, Apollo uses the exclamation “miserable me,” an effective contrast between the picture painted earlier of a blood-thirsty predator on the tail of a meal.

The only relation between this and Catullus that I could draw is in Carmen 60 where Catullus refers to Lesbia as a cruel lioness, however in this metaphor, Lesbia assumes the role of the harsh predator and not Catullus.

Roseanne2 said...

The story of Daphne and Apollo compares two various themes in a very distinct manner. There are several ways in which one can relate the themes of the hunt and sexual passion. However, Ovid chooses to use the hunt as a means to describe the depth in which Apollo wants Daphne. This can be linked to sexual passion as well. The themes of the hunt and sexual passion run concurrently in lines 1.533 – 1.539, when Ovid writes, “ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo vidit, et hic praedam pedibus petit, ille salutem; alter inhaesuro similis iam iamque tenere
sperat et extento stringit vestigia rostro, alter in ambiguo est, an sit conprensus, et ipsis morsibus eripitur tangentiaque ora relinquit: sic deus et virgo est hic spe celer, illa timore,” “ As when a Gallic dog has seen a rabbit in an empty field, and this one seeks pretty with its feet, that one safety: like one about to grasp, and now hopd to hold it, grazes its footprints with its stretched snout; the other is in doubt whether he is caught, and snatches himself from the very bites and leaves the mouth touching it; thus god and maiden are quick, he with hope, she with fear.” These lines show an example of to what extent Apollo craves Daphne. However, just as we have seen in previous poems with Catullus, the girl (in this case Daphne) is unwilling to be seized by Apollo. Just as with Catullus and Lesbia in that Catullus pursues Lesbia and falls in love with her yet that love is not returned, Apollo falls for Daphne. However, that feeling is not reciprocated. The theme of the hunt (the predator/prey scenario) is seen particularly with Daphne in that she is the prey that runs in fear, where as Apollo is the predator that seeks her. The sexual passion is seen only in Apollo because he is in love with Daphne. She does not feel the same for him.

Ian2 said...

Apollo's "courtship" of Daphne is truly nothing like a love affair and more of a hunt, complete with fleeing prey.

The Gallic dog simile, 533 - 539: “ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo vidit, et hic praedam pedibus petit, ille salutem; alter inhaesuro similis iam iamque tenere
sperat et extento stringit vestigia rostro, alter in ambiguo est, an sit conprensus, et ipsis morsibus eripitur tangentiaque ora relinquit: sic deus et virgo est hic spe celer, illa timore,”

“As when a Gallic dog has seen a rabbit in an empty field, and this one seeks the prize with its feet (running), that one (seeks) safety: like one about to grasp, and now hoped to hold it, grazes its footprints with its stretched snout; the other is in doubt whether he is caught, and snatches himself from the very bites and leaves the mouth touching it; thus god and maiden are fast, he with hope, she with fear.”

The simile truly characterizes the double theme of hunt and love. Apollo is the hound, snapping at and nearly snatching up the Daphne-hare throughout the long chase. Catullus does not use the hunting theme so much , though in 51, he is sort of stalking in the bushes, like a waiting predator.. which makes it super creepy. Catullus mainly makes use of idea of pursuit in that he loves Lesbia, as Apollo loves Daphne, and she does not love him. Lesbia's betrayal, as C-dawg sees it, mirrors Daphne's refusal to give in to the god's amorous advances, leaving the fellow heartbroken.

And I think Jay's use of Duran Duran rocks.

khushbu2 said...

Ovid uses several similes to relate this sexual passion that Apollo has for Daphne with predator attacking its prey. These themes run concurrently for the most part, but there is a point of divergence of Apollo and Daphne and this hunt. Throughout the poem, Apollo is compared to fierce predators like “lupum,” “leonem,” “aquila,” and “gallicus canis”, (wolf, lion, eagle, and a Gallic dog) while Daphne is likened to fearful prey such as “agna,” “cerva,” “columba,” “lepus” (lamb, doe, dove, rabbit). These images of these different hunts work well to parallel this odd relationship between Apollo and Daphne. Apollo persists in chasing Daphne because of this passion, while Daphne keep fleeing in fear. This image stays parallel for the most past because Apollo is driven by this strong almost animalistic sexual passion. The two different themes and images seem to diverge at the close of the poem. The intensity of Apollo and his passion is contrasted when he sees his lover change shapes, “ Hanc quoque Phoebus amat positāque in stipite dextrā sentit adhuc trepidare novo sub cortice pectus conplexusque suis ramos ut membra lacertis oscula dat lingo” (Apollo loves this one too and feels, with a right hand placed on the trunk, that her heart still trembles under the new bark, and having embraced the branches as limbs with his own arms, he gives the wood kisses. The intensity and savageness of the hunt disappears. Apollo is a heartbroken but hopeful lover and not an animal that is driven by a hunt or sexual passion. Catullus and Lesbia’s relationship can be likened to a hunt because in certain instances Catullus seems to be driven by sexual passion rather than a different kind of love.

jane2 said...

In the story of Daphne and Apollo, Ovid juxtaposes the hunt and sexual passion. These two themes run concurrently in two places: lines 1.505-1.507 and lines 1.533-1.539. In lines 1.505-1.507, Ovid writes: "sic agna lupum, sic cerva leonem, sic aquillam penna fugiunt trepidante columbae, hostes quaeque suos: amor est mihi causa sequendi" / "like a lamb flees a wolf, like a deer flees a lion, like a pigeon flees an eagle with a trembling wing, each flees its enemies; love is the cause of following for me." In lines 1.533-1.539, Ovid writes: "ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo vidit, et hic praedam pedibus petit, ille salutem; alter inhaesuro similis iam iamque tenere sperat et extento stringit vestigia rostro, alter in ambiguo est, an sit conprensus, et ipsis morsibus eripitur tangentiaque ora relinquit: sic deus et virgo est hic spe celer, illa timore" / "as when a Gallic dog has seen a hare in an empty field, and with its feet this one seeks prey, that one safety; about to grasp one like one, hoped to hold it now and now, and grazes its footprints with his stretched-out snout; the other is in doubt, whether he be caught, and snatches himself from the very bites, and leaves the mouth touching it: thus god and maiden are quick, he with hope, she with fear." I don't think there are areas where the two themes diverge or where they pertain to Apollo in one way and Daphne in another. Catullus seems to use double themes in his works as well. For example, in Carmen 43, Catullus juxtaposes the idea of Lesbia's beauty and the lack of beauty of the girl mentioned in order to emphasize Lesbia's beauty: "Salve, nec minimo puella naso nec bello pede nec nigris ocellis nec longis digitis nec ore sicco nec sane nimis elegante lingua. Decoctoris amica Formiani, ten provincia narrat esse bellam? Tecum Lesbia nostra comparatur? O saeclum insapiens et infacetum!" / "Hello, girl with the not small nose, and not beautiful feet, and not black eyes, and not long fingers, and not dry mouth,
and truly not an elegant tongue too much. The girlfriend of the bankrupt Formiae, does the province say you are beautiful? Should our Lesbia be compared with you? O foolish and dull age!"

jrog08 said...

In the story of Daphne and Apollo, the hunt and sexual passion are very much intertwined. In fact, Apollo’s hunt for Daphne is the result of his sexual passion, courtesy of Cupid.
Ovid makes a direct comparison to hunting in lines 533 to 534 where he says “ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo vidit, et hic praedam pedibus petit” or “as the Gallic dog saw the rabbit in the empty field and seeks this prize with feet” which obviously shows that Apollo is hunting, literally, for Daphne because of his lust.
Another comparison occurs in lines 505-506 where Ovid compares Apollo and Daphne’s relationship, “sic agna lupum… sic cerva leonem… sic aquilam columbae” or “Just as you are fleeing me, so like the lamb the wolf, like the doe the lioness, like the dove the eagle” which again draws the image of Daphne being Apollo’s prey and the object of his desires. It is very apparent that Ovid uses the image of hunting to portray Apollo’s passion for Daphne whose love is unrequited as shown when Daphne begs her father to change her into a tree to escape Apollo’s advances. Once this has occurred, Apollo switches from the role of the dominant predator to the supplicant lover wanting to kiss Daphne’s lips , “complexusque suis ramos, ut membra, lacertis oscula dat lingo; tamen oscula lignum” or “and having embraced the branches, as limbs, with his own arms gives kisses to the wood; nevertheless the wood fled the kisses” which shows that instead of being the predator and taking Daphne for his own, he tries to embrace the tree as a sign of his devotion and was rejected thus somewhat reversing Apollo’s initial role as the dominant figure.
Finally, I can determine no comparisons to hunting specifically in Catullus’ works, besides the fact that Catullus continually pursues Lesbia because of his lust, though not in a metaphorical way as in Ovid’s works.

hyung02 said...

In the story of Daphne and Apollo, Ovid uses the hunt to compare to Apollo's sexual passion for Daphne.
The first simile is at lines 505-507. He says, "...Sic agna lupum, sic cerva leonem, sic aquilam penna fugiunt trepidante columbae, hostes quaeque suos; amor est mihi causa sequendi. // Thus the lamb the wolf, thus the deer the lion, thus the doves flee the eagle on a trembling wing;
each flees it own enemies: love is the cause of my pursuit." Here, Apollo is compared to a wolf, a lion, and an eagle where Daphne is compared to a lamb, a deer, and a dove. Also the text clearly says, "amor est mihi causa sequendi". The love is the cause my pursuit. The pursuit of each ferocious animal is compared to a god who chases a fragile nymph.
Another simile occurs at lines 533 - 539. He says, "Ut canis in vauo lporem cum Gallicus arvo vidit, et hic praedam pedibus petit, ille salutem alter inhaesuro similis iam iamque tenere sperat, et extento stringit vestigia rostro;
alter in ambiguo estan sit comprensus, et ipsis morsibus eripitur, tangentiaque ora relinquit. sic deus et virgo; est hic spe celer, illa timore. // as when a Gallica dog has seen a hare in an empty field, and this one seeks prey with its feet, that one safety; one like one about to grasp, now and now hopes to hold it, and grazes footsteps with stretched out beak other is in doubt, whether he be caught, and snatches himself from the very bites and leaves the mouth touching it: thus god and maiden is quick, he with hope, she with fear." Here, Apollo is a dog, and Daphne is a hare. Also in line 534, the reader can visualize a predator chasing its prey which shows that Apollo's desire to chase Daphne.
One of Catullus poems that I could remember which has similar situation is in Carmen 64 where Ariadna passionately chases Theseus. In both stories, Amor brings sadness.

lauren2 said...

In Ovid's story of Daphne and Apollo, the two themes of hunt and sexual passion are consistently intertwined. It seems that the themes run concurrently in the story's entirety, yet only apply to Apollo. Because of an arrow of love shot by Cupid, Apollo seems to be on a hunt for Daphne driven by his sexual passion. The hunt is exhibited nicely in lines 533-539: "ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo vidit, et hic praedam pedibus petit, ille salutem; alter inhaesuro similis iam iamque tenere sperat et extento stringit vestigia rostro, alter in ambiguo est, an sit conprensus, et ipsis morsibus eripitur tangentiaque ora relinquit: sic deus et virgo est hic spe celer, illa timore,” translated, "As when a Gallic dog has seen a rabbit in an empty field, and this one seeks the reward with its feet, that one safety: like one about to grasp, and now hoped to hold it, grazes its footprints with its stretched snout; the other is in doubt whether he is caught and snatches himself from the very bites and leaves the mouth touching it; thus god and maiden are fast, he with hope, she with fear.” This illustration displays and compares Apollo's chase to that of an animal. This animal-like behavior can be linked to the purely sexual nature driving Apollo's attraction to Daphne.
Catullus seems to display more of the sexual passion motif, itemizing Lesbia through her appearance. Catullus is never on an actual "hunt" for Lesbia, but tends to have pity on himself for not obtaining the woman.

82 said...

Throughout most of Daphne and Apollo, Ovid uses the hunt and sexual passion. These two themes seem to run concurrently during most of the poem. One place that specifically shows the hunt and sexual passion together would be in line 474. "protinus alter amat, fugit altera nomen amantis" which translated says:"one suddenly loves, the other flees the name of the lover." This one line represents the entire poem and intertwines the two major themes. one (Apollo) is driven by sexual passion into a hunt-like way as the other (Daphne) flees. Another example of the hunt and passion running side by side would be in lines 505-507 "sic agna lupum, sic cerva leonem, sic aquilam penna fugiunt trpidante columbae, hostes quaeque suos: amor est mihi causa sequendi" "Thus the lamb flees the wolf, thus the deer
the lion, thus the dove flee the eagle on a trembling wing;
each flees it own enemies: love is the cause of my pursuit!" The sentence -love is the cause of my pursuit- shows that this hunt is based on his sexual passion. I think these themes diverge at the end when "the hunt" is over by Daphnes new form of a tree.
The presence of these double themes in Catullus seems rare to me. At some points it seems as though Catullus considers himself to be on the hunt fueled by his sexual passion for Lesbia, but I feel as though Ovid does a better job making these themes flow and be easily understood.

hope2 said...

Apollo and Daphne both start out as hunters, but of game, not people. Apollo tells Cupid that "pestifero tot iugera ventre prementem, stravimus innumeris tumidum Pythona sagittis" or "we struck down the swollen Python, oppressing the lands with its pestilence-bearing stomach, with innumerable arrows" (459-460) and Daphne is describes as "silvarum latebris captivarumque ferarum exuviis gaudens" or "rejoicing in the hiding places of the woods and the spoils of captured beasts" (475-476). However, Cupid, the hunter of men and women, transforms their healthy, normal love of hunting that is common to humans into bestial hunting, animal chasing animal where Apollo is the predator and Daphne the prey. This is shown when Apollos says, "Sic agna lupum, sic cerva leonem, sic aquilam penna fugiunt trepidante columbae" or "Thus the lamb flees the wolf, thus the deer the lion, thus doves flee the eagle with trembling wings" (505-506).
The only thing that redeems the flight as somewhat human is the love that imbues it. Apollo does not chase Daphne to kill and eat her but to have her for his love. However, the love is not under his control, it is pure instinctual because of Cupid's arrow. This shows when Ovid describes the pair as a dog chasing a rabbit, depicting the dog with the words "inhaesuro similis" or "like an animal about to grab its prey with its teeth" (535). "inhaesuro" however can also be used to describe an embrace, adding a strangely human element.
This trend continues until Daphne is transformed into a tree, something that cannot be hunted, thereby allowing Apollo to return to a man (actually a god) who desires more noble uses for the laurel in Roman culture.
Catullus also uses the image of the predator, but he usually applies it to the woman. For example, in Carmen 60, he calls the woman "leaena montibus Libystinis aut Scylla latrans infima inguinum parte" or "lioness from the African mountains or Scylla barking from the lowest part of her groins" (1-2).

Kelsey2 said...

The hunt and sexual passion are strongly intertwined throughout Apollo's pursuit. While sexual passion can certainly occur in conjunction with love, what Apollo feels has been induced by Cupid's arts, and not his own natural feeling (although we cannot know what effect Daphne would have had upon him otherwise). Therefore, his focus is far more upon achieving that which he desires rather than tenderness for Daphne. His sexual passion fuels the hunt for satiation, but it rises to a frantic and wild pitch as he snaps desperately at the fleeting object of his desire like a hound at a hare.
Line 533, "Ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo vidit...", or "Just as when a dog of Gaul sees a hare in an empty field...", Apollo's animal instincts are ignited, "and this one(he) seeks the prize with feet", or "et his praedam pedibus petit".
Daphne is certainly not seized by a sexual passion in the way that Apollo is, but she could be said to have sexual passion in a different way. In line 486, she appeals to her father to let her remain a virgin forever, "Da mihi perpetua, genitor carissime", "Give to me forever (virginity), most beloved father," arguing that "the father of Diana (Jupiter) gave this to her previously", "dedit hoc pater ante Dianae".
Her pleading and obvious fright at being pursued and taken captive are a kind of negative sexual passion, where she is desperate to remain pure rather than be overpowered and violated by the amorous god.
I find the connections between the base, the human, and the divine particularly interesting. The Romans clearly endowed their gods with human characteristics and follies, and in stories they are often very involved with the mortals, perhaps because both are so similar. Ovid takes it a step further, however, with Apollo's animal desires. "Love" takes him from a position above man to the basest and most feral level of human wants, suggesting again the overwhelming power emotions exert on humans, if it can bring a god to such a place.
Catullus certainly does not hesitate to express his passions, but knowing the personal nature of his work, it is easier to place his love in a gentler and kinder category of true care rather than mere sexual desire. Catullus does play with multiple themes, such as in the poem where he addresses a day spent with a fellow writer and friend whom he admires very much, combining his poetic and literary admiration with suggestive underlying sexual tones.

Yayu2 said...

Ovid juxtaposes the themes of the hunt and sexual passion in the story of Apollo and Daphne. I think these two themes run concurrently throughout the whole poem. Although Daphne eventually stops running because she is turned into a tree, and Apollo is no longer depicted as a vicious predator, the themes are still intertwined because he stopped the hunt since he has already caught her. The themes contrast Apollo and Daphne by making Apollo a lusting, ruthless predator while making Daphne a helpless, fearful prey that is doing all that she could to escape the evil clutches of Apollo. Their roles stay the same until the very end.
Ovid's use of metaphors in lines 505-507: "sic agna lupum, sic cerva leonem, sic aquillam penna fugiunt trepidante columbae, hostes quaeque suos: amor est mihi causa sequendi" (thus a sheep runs from the wolf, thus a deer from the mountain lion, thus a dove with fluttering wings flies from the eagle: each flees its own enemies; love is to me the cause of following) and lines 533-539: "ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo vidit, et hic praedam pedibus petit, ille salutem; alter inhaesuro similis iam iamque tenere sperat et extento stringit vestigia rostro, alter in ambiguo est, an sit conprensus, et ipsis morsibus eripitur tangentiaque ora relinquit: sic deus et virgo est hic spe celer, illa timore" (As when a Gallic hound has seen a hare in an open field; and the one seeks his prey, the other safety with its feet, the one similar to one about to fasten now and now hopes to hold her and brushes her footsteps with outstretched face; the other is in doubt whether it is caught, and escapes out of the very jaws and leaves his mouth just touching her. Thus is the god and the virgin: he swift by hope, she by fear) correctly convene the depth of Apollo's passion, which causes him to chase poor Daphne until she has no choice but to turn into a tree. Of course, Apollo shouldn't be blamed entirely because he is driven by Cupid's arrow, but Ovid draws for us a picture of a beastly Apollo, calling him a "lupum, aquila, leonem, and gallicus canis" ( wolf, eagle, lion, and a Gallic dog), chasing to exhaustion a fearful Daphne. “lepus, agna, columba, cerva" (rabbit,lamb, dove, doe) There is no doubt the role each of them plays.
Catullus writes his poems a bit differently than Ovid does. Catullus never exactly uses a hunting scene to show his lust and desire. He has commented on how he wishes to have Lesbia as he chases after her, but it's in a different sense. I also know that Catullus often contrasts Lesbia with other people to show exactly how great she is or how bad (carmen 43 and 60). Also in carmen 64, Ariadne does chase after Theseus a little. Similarly, both Catullus and Apollo do not obtain what they are after, showing that unrequited love hurts.

vikas2 said...

In Daphne and Apollo, Ovid connects the themes of a hunt and sexual passion. In my opinion, these two themes seem to run concurrently throughout much of the story. Ovid uses similes to connect these themes. He does this by comparing Apollo’s passion towards Daphne with a predator (Apollo) attacking its prey (Daphne). Apollo is compared to predators in lines 505-506. “sic agna lupum, sic cerva leonem, sic aquilam penna fugiunt trepidante columbae” (Thus the lamb the wolf, thus the deer the lion, thus the doves flee the eagle on a trembling wing). These lines portray this odd relationship between Apollo and Daphne. Apollo continues to chase Daphne because of his sexual passion, while Daphne keeps fleeing in fear. The major simile in this poem that compares the hunt to Apollo’s pursuit is in lines 533-539. “ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo vidit, et hic praedam pedibus petit, ille salutem; alter inhaesuro similis iam iamque tenere sperat et extento stringit vestigia rostro, alter in ambiguo est, an sit conprensus, et ipsis morsibus eripitur tangentiaque ora relinquit: sic deus et virgo est hic spe celer, illa timore” (As when a Gallic dog has seen a rabbit in an empty field, and this one seeks the prize with its feet, that one safety: like one about to grasp, and now hoped to hold it, grazes its footprints with its stretched snout; the other is in doubt whether he is caught, and snatches himself from the very bites and leaves the mouth touching it; thus god and maiden are fast, he with hope, she with fear). This simile portrays Apollo as a fierce animal, while portraying Daphne as an innocent animal. These lines show to what degree Apollo loves Daphne, and to what extent he will go to have her. I have these double themes in the works of Catullus, specifically Carmen 64. Ariadne pursues and wants Theseus who has abandoned her, likewise Apollo pursues and wants Daphne who wants nothing to do with him.

anqi2 said...

In Ovid's work as well as Catullus' work, there are juxtapositions of the hunt for love and sexual passion as characterized by extended metaphors. These metaphors help give a greater meaning to the point that the author is hinting at.

For example, in Daphne and Apollo, the most blatant extended metaphor is in lines 533-539: "ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo vidit, et hic praedam pedibus petit, ille salutem; alter inhaesuro similis iam iamque tenere sperat et extento stringit vestigia rostro, alter in ambiguo est, an sit conprensus, et ipsis morsibus eripitur tangentiaque ora relinquit: sic deus et virgo est hic spe celer, illa timore." (As when a Gallic dog has seen a hare in an empty field, and this one seeks prey with its feet, that one safety; one like one about to grasp, now hopes to grab on, and follows footprints with an outstretched snout; the other is in doubt of whether it is caught, is ripped by the bites themselves, and leaves the touching mouth: thus god and virgin are, one quick with hope, the other with fear.) This metaphor emphasizes the chase that is occurring due to Cupid's doings. Apollo, a mighty god used to getting what he wants, is caught in a chase for the one thing he desires the most: Daphne. Apollo, in this poem, is depicted often as strong predators such as a "lupum" (Line 505, "wolf"), "leonem " (Line 505, "lion"), and "aquilam" (Line 506, "eagle") while Daphne is described as animals of prey such as "agna" (Line 505, "lamb"), "cerva" (Line 505, "deer"), "penna" (Line 506, "dove"). His sexual passion mimicks that of a hunt of a predator for his prey.

Such is also displayed in the works of Catullus, including the epyllion, Catullus 64. There is a metaphor in lines 86-93: "hunc simul ac cupido conspexit lumine virgo regia, quam suavis exspirans castus odores lectulus in molli complexu matris alebat, quales Eurotae praecingunt flumina myrtus
aurave distinctos educit verna colores, non prius ex illo flagrantia declinavit lumina, quam cuncto concepit corpore flammam
funditus atque imis exarsit tota medullis." ("As soon as royal virgin caught sight of him in a desirous light, the chaste little bed, emitting sweet fragrances, nursed her in her mother's soft embrace; the fragrances were like the smell of the myrtles that surround Eurotas' streams, or the various shades of flowers borne by the breeze of spring. No sooner than she had lowered some intense lights from Theseus did she catch a flame in her whole body and blaze up completely from the depth of her marrow.") However, this selection contrasts with Ovid's work. In Daphne and Apollo, the male is chasing the female. In Catullus' work, the female is chasing the male, such as the section above declaring Ariadne's "love at first sight" (probably to delineate Catullus' desire/bitterness towards Lesbia).

Sanjay2 said...

Through Daphne and Apollo, Ovid consciously draws out a chase scene between Daphne and Apollo. This pervading metaphor is not only drawn along by Ovid’s use of spondaic and dactylic lines but also compels every word that is chosen by Ovid and the very way he relates the story. In a way, Ovid morphs this story to fit that of a chase between a predator and its prey.
The poem starts with the lines recited by Apollo (463-465) 'figat tuus omnia, Phoebe,/ te meus arcus' ait; 'quantoque animalia cedunt/ cuncta deo, tanto minor est tua gloria nostra.' These lines translate to Oh Apollo, you cannot conquer all with your bows and arrows, and with this small arrow I will pierce your glourious chest. These lines begin the hunt by setting up another connection between love/passion and the hunt. Cupid who is the god of love, is setting up this metaphor by hunting the god of healing Apollo with his arrow. His use of the word cuncta and animalia also add to the intensity of the chase scene.
The next example of this Predator/prey relationship is extended in Apollo’s plea to Daphne (503-507) 'nympha, precor, Penei, mane! non insequor hostis;/nympha, mane! sic agna lupum, sic cerva leonem,/sic aquilam penna fugiunt trepidante columbae,/ hostes quaeque suos: amor est mihi causa sequendi!. These lines roughly translate to,” O Nymph, O Daphne, stay! it is no enemy that follows you, as the lamb leaps from the raving wolf, and from the lion chases the timid deer, and from the eagle flies upon the trembling dove, all (of these) hasten from their natural enemy: I alone pursue for my dear love. This imagery is very direct and sets up a sharp contrast between the attitudes of Apollo and Dahpne. Apollo, the lusty lover chasing the virgin maid who wishes to stay chaste is represented by every metaphor that Is drawn upon in lines 503-507.
In terms of Catullan poetry, I think one can set up a beautiful contrast between the characters of Apollo and Theseus and Daphne and Ariadne. While Ariadne laments over being forgotten and left on the craggy shore, Daphne runs to save herself from a intent pursuer. In the same way, Apollo cannot forget about his love, yet the careless and forgetful Theseus leaves his wife to go on some epic journey. This contrast shows that Ovid and Catullus may have been working on the same problem, yet on two extremes of the spectrum.

Timmy2 said...

Ovid clearly makes a connection between the hunt and sexual passion in the uses of his many similes, most obvious in the passage that reads: “ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo vidit, et hic praedam pedibus petit, ille salutem; alter inhaesuro similis iam iamque tenere
sperat et extento stringit vestigia rostro, alter in ambiguo est, an sit conprensus, et ipsis morsibus eripitur tangentiaque ora relinquit: sic deus et virgo est hic spe celer, illa timore,” meaning “just as when a Gallic dog sees a rabbit in an empty field, and the former seeks its prize with feet; the latter [seeks] safety. And one, like an animal about to grab its prey with its teeth, now hopes to hold it, and grazes the footprints with its extended snout. The other, in doubt whether it is caught, and snatches himself from the bites themselves, and leaves the mouth touching it. Like the god and the maiden; he is fast with hope, she with fear.” Like Pepe Le Pew, Apollo chases after his desired love, whilst said love is like Penelope Pussycast, desperately trying to escape the grasp of her pursuer. Apollo believes he is driven by the passion of love, but Daphne has no love for him in return and only seeks to rid herself of him. His desire is so strong that it becomes just as a hunt. Catullus does not describe his love as a hunt. In poem 51, he is describes himself watching Lesbia from afar, but he does nothing to “hunt” her. Most of his poetry focuses on his relationship with Lesbia while she has been “caught,” so the simile of the hunt is unnecessary for him.

Will Ravon said...

Probably the easiest theme to see in Apollo and Daphne is the hunt. Some similes are made to compare Apollo's chase of Daphne,bust most notably is the one contained within lines 533-539; which are

"ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo vidit, et hic praedam pedibus petit, ille salutem; alter inhaesuro similis iam iamque tenere sperat et extento stringit vestigia rostro, alter in ambiguo est, an sit conprensus, et ipsis morsibus eripitur tangentiaque ora relinquit: sic deus et virgo est hic spe celer, illa timore."

Translated, these lines mean,
"As a Gallic hound sees a rabbit in the vast field, and this seeks the prize by foot, that safety; like one about to get teeth in now and even now hoped to hold and it grazes the tracks with extended nose. one is in doubt, whether if caught, and it escapes from the bite itself and leaves behind the touching mouth. thus the god and the virgin are this fast by hope, that by fear."

This obviously exemplifies the hunt, Apollo being the dog hunting and Daphne being the rabbit hunted. Catullus makes a contrast to this in 64 where Theseus leaves the one he loves and Ariadne searching for the one who loves her. Granted, Apollo only chases Daphne because of Cupid, but nonetheless Apollo is quite the opposite of Theseus. Ariadne wants to "chase" Theseus but is unable to while Daphne flees Apollo as long as she is able to.

ryan2 said...

Ovid writes Daphne and Apollo with many of the same topics as Catullus writes his poetry. Sexual passion and the hunt for sex.
In Daphne and Apollo Ovid uses the allusion of a dog chasing a rabbit, line 533-534 "ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo vidit, et hic praedam pedibus petit, ille salutem" which translates "As when a Gallic dog has seen a hare in an empty field,
and this one seeks prey with its feet, that one safety;" is used to show the reader what Apollo is feeling.
Ovid does not however seem to reverse the roll of the hunted and the hunter. The reason for that it cannot be reversed because Cupid shoots Apollo with the arrow of love and shoots Daphne with an arrow that repels love. Line 468 - 469 "eque sagittiferā prompsit duo telă pharetra diversōrum operum: fugat hoc, facit illud amorem;" which translates "and from an arrow-bearing quiver he drew forth two weapons of differing purposes: this one repels, that one creates love;"
Catullus uses the "hunter and hunted" metaphor in his poem about Lesbia when Catullus is spying on Lesbia who is spending time with her husband/boyfriend. I could not find the poem that this happened in but that is the best example that i can think of.

pranav2 said...

In the story of Daphne and Apollo in the Metamorphoses compares the hunt to passion. Throughout most of the story Apollo is portrayed as a predator chasing after his prey, Daphne. One instance where Ovid does this is in lines 533 to 539:
"ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo vidit, et hic praedam pedibus petit, ille salutem- alter inhaesuro similis iam iamque tenere sperat et extento stringit vestigia rostro; alter in ambiguo est, an sit conprensus, et ipsis morsibus eripitur, tangentiaque ora relinquit- sic deus et virgo; est hic spe celer, illa timore."
" As when a Gallic dog sees a rabbit in an open field, and this one attacks the prey with feet, the other, safety; one like an animal about to grab its prey with its teeth now hopes to hold and draws close to the footprints with its nose outstretched, the other is in doubt whether it would be caught, and it is ripped from the very bites and leaves the touching mouths: thus the god and the maiden, one is fast with hope, the other with fear."
Here Apollo is actually shown as an animal chasing after Daphne, who is helpless and fleeing him. It shows how much Apollo longs for Daphne even though she does not have the same feelings for him.
I did not see any instances where they change roles, because it is always Apollo desiring Daphne and not the other way around.
I could not find many instances where Catullus uses the double theme of the hunt and passion. The only things I could think of were Catullus' pursuit of Leshia and Ariadne's love for Theseus, though neither of these are extreme as Apollo's pursuit.